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EFECTOS DEL TRATAMIENTO ANTIOXIDANTE EN LA ACTIVACIÓN DEL EJE HIPOTÁLAMO-HIPÓFISO-ADRENAL INDUCIDA POR EL CONSUMO DE DIETAS RICAS EN SACAROSA

María Elisa Mercau, Juan Salvador Calanni, Marcos Aranda, Ruth Estela Rosenstein, Esteban Martín Repetto, Cora Beatriz Cymeryng

Resumen


Introducción: dados los efectos pleiotrópicos de los glucocorticoides (GCs) sobre el metabolismo, los niveles excesivos y sostenidos de GCs circulantes tienen efectos deletéreos e incrementan la morbilidad y mortalidad cardiovascular.

Objetivos: estudiar el efecto de la terapia antioxidante (con ácido lipoico o melatonina) sobre la hiperactivación del eje hipotálamo-hipófiso-adrenal (HHA) en animales alimentados con dieta rica en sacarosa (DRS).

Materiales y métodos: se evaluó la actividad del eje HHA y se determinaron parámetros hormonales, de estrés oxidativo y de inflamación en la adenohipófisis de animales tratados con DRS durante tres semanas.

Resultados: los animales del grupo DRS mostraron mayores niveles circulantes de hormona adrenocorticotropa (ACTH, por su sigla en inglés) y corticosterona. En paralelo se detectó un aumento en la expresión del polipéptido precursor (proopiomelanocortina, POMC) y de ACTH en la adenohipófisis, donde también se observó un aumento de lipoperóxidos y proteínas nitradas en tirosina (daño oxidativo), un mayor número de macrófagos tisulares y un incremento en la producción de IL-1beta. El tratamiento antioxidante previno los cambios en estos parámetros. En particular la melatonina también normalizó la actividad del eje HHA y la expresión hipofisaria de POMC.

Conclusiones: la sobrecarga metabólica inducida por la administración de DRS genera daño oxidativo e inflamación en la adenohipófisis. La activación de los macrófagos tisulares producida en consecuencia podría impactar sobre los corticotropos hipofisarios e inducir su hiperfunción. La melatonina podría utilizarse como herramienta terapéutica para normalizar la actividad del eje HHA en modelos de obesidad por dieta.


Palabras clave


Dieta rica en sacarosa; adenohipófisis; eje hipotálamo-hipófiso-adrenal; estrés oxidativo; inflamación; ácido lipoico; melatonina.

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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.47196/diab.v54i2.244

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