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MESA 3: DIABETES MELLITUS TIPO 2 Y ACTIVIDAD FÍSICA

Carlos Javier Buso, Pablo Javier Avila, Natalia Bertollo, Carolina Gómez Martín, Alejandro De Dios, Sofía Fabregues, Lázaro González, Velia Lobbe, Giselle Mumbach, José Retamosa, Pablo Retamosa, Ana Schindler, Dana Sobol

Resumen


La prevalencia de diabetes mellitus (DM) actividad física es cada vez mayor asociada a bajos niveles de actividad física (AF) y aumento de sobrepeso-obesidad.

Los beneficios de la AF incluyen la prevención de la DM, reducción de hemoglobina glicosilada y glucemia postprandial, mejoría del perfil cardiovascular (descenso Presión arterial y triglicéridos, aumento de colesterol HDL), descenso significativo de biomarcadores proinflamatorios. Además, la AF mejora la disfunción sexual, la función endotelial, el óxido nítrico biodisponible y la insulinosensibilad, incrementa la testosterona, mejora el humor y la autoestima, la ansiedad y la depresión.

El ejercicio incrementa la producción de glucosa, la secreción de insulina compensatoria está alterada y se exacerba por una mayor secreción de catecolaminas. Las personas con insulinopenia marcada tienen riesgo de cetosis. El aumento de hipoglucemias está dado por una mayor captación de glucosa.  

La AF mejora la polineuropatía y la neuropatía autonómica cardíaca, previene la enfermad renal crónica y se asocia a menores niveles de retinopatía diabética. En pacientes con retinopatía preproliferativa y proliferativa o degradación macular, se desaconsejan las actividades que aumentan considerablemente la presión intraocular. Está contraindicado el ejercicio en caso de hemorragia vítrea.

El requerimiento energético depende del tipo, intensidad y duración del ejercicio. Se debe considerar el cuidado del pie. Las recomendaciones son disminuir el tiempo sedentario, ejercicio aeróbico al menos 150 min/semana y ejercicio de resistencia.

Al aumentar la intensidad o ante riesgo elevado se debe realizar chequeo que incluya electrocardiograma y test de esfuerzo. Considerar ecocardiograma bidimensional y doppler.


Palabras clave


actividad física; diabetes tipo 2; beneficios; limitaciones; recomendaciones

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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.47196/diab.v52i3Sup.124

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