ADVERTISEMENT
ADVERTISEMENT

TRASTORNOS DE LA FERTILIDAD EN EL HOMBRE CON DIABETES TIPO 1 Y 2

Laura Pomares, Alberto Burruchaga, Pablo Ávila, Matías Re, Pablo Constanzo, Sebastián Suárez, Daniel Dionisi, Martín Maraschio, Julieta Méndez, Carolina Muratore, Ana Ordax, Pablo Rematoso, Darío Torres, Abel Weinmester, Gabriela Rosende, Alejandro De Dios

Resumen


La diabetes mellitus (DM) es una de las mayores amenazas para la salud pública en las sociedades modernas. Si bien durante varios años se sugirió que la DM no tenía efecto significativo en la función reproductiva masculina, esta visión fue cambiando. La creciente incidencia de la DM a nivel mundial afectará a cada vez más hombres y de menor edad, y por lo tanto podría afectar su potencial reproductivo.


Palabras clave


diabetes; fertilidad masculina

Texto completo:

PDF

Referencias


Alves MG, et al. Molecular mechanisms beyond glucose transport in diabetes-related male infertility. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1832 (2013) 626-635.

Agbaje IM, Rogers DA, Mc Vicar CM, et al. Insulin dependant diabetes mellitus: implications for male reproductive function. Hum. Reprod. 2007; 22:1871-1877.

Mulholland J, et al. Male diabetes mellitus and assisted reproduction treatment outcome. Reprod. Biomed. Online 2011;22: 215-219.

Pacey AA. Environmental and lifestyle factors associated with sperm DNA damage. Hum. Fertil (Camb) 2010;13:189-193.

Amaral S, Oliveira PJ, Ramalho-Santos J. Diabetes and the impairment of reproductive function: possible role of mitochondria and reactive oxygen species. Curr. Diabetes Rev. 2008;4:46-54.

Navarro Casado L, Juncos Tobarra MA, Cháfer Rudilla M, de Onzoño LI, Blázquez Cabrera JA, Miralles García JM. Effect of experimental diabetes and STZ on male fertility capacity. Study in rats. J Androl. 2010;31:584-592.

Cameron DF, et al. Sustained hyperglycemia results in testicular dysfunction and reduced fertility potential in BBWOR diabetic rats. Am. J. Physiol. 1990;259: E881-E889.

Gómez O, Ballester B, Romero A, et al. Expression and regulation of insulin and the glucose transporter GLUT8 in the testes of diabetic rats. Horm. Metab. Res. 2009; 41:343-349.

Pages G, Aller J. Infertilidad: fisiología, diagnóstico y tratamiento. Ed. Amolca. Espermatogenesis, pág. 15-33, 2006.

Pellicer A, Simón C. Neuroendocrinología reproductiva. Vol. 9 N°1, 2003. Pág. 47-60.

George J, Millar R, Anderson R. Hypotesis: kisspeptin mediates male hypogonadism in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Neuroendocrinology 2010;91:302-307.

Schoeller E, Schon S, Moley K. The effects of type 1 diabetes on the hypothalamic, pituitary and testes axis. Cell Tissue Res. 2012; 349: 839-847.

Baccetti B, La Marca A, Piomboni P, et al. Insulin-dependent diabetes in men is associated with hypothalamo-pituitary derangement and with impairment in semen quality. Hum. Reprod. 2002; 17:2673-2677.

Costanzo PR, Suárez SM, et al. Evaluation of the hypotalamic pituitary gonadal axis in eugonadal men with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Andrology 2 (1):117-24, 2014.

Isidori AM, et al. Effects of testosterone on body composition, bone metabolism and serum lipid profile in middle-aged men: a meta-analysis. Clinical Endocrinology 63, 280-293, 2005.

Mammi C, et al. Androgens and adipose tissue in males: a complex and reciprocal interplay. International Journal of Endocrinology, 2012, 789653.

Kapoor D, et al. Androgens, insulin resistance and vascular disease in men. Clinical Endocrinology, 63, 239-250, 2006.

Cohen PG. The hypogonadal-obesity cycle: role of aromatase in modulating the testosterone-estradiol shunt a major factor in the genesis of morbid obesity. Medical Hypotheses, 52, 49-51, 1999.

Mallidis C, Agbaje I, Mc Clure N, Kliesch S. The influence of diabetes mellitus on male reproductive function: a poorly investigated aspect of male infertility. Urologe A. 2011; 50:33-37. Abstract.

Bener A, Al-Ansari AA, Zirie M, Al-Hamaq AO. Is male fertility associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus? Int. Urol. Nephrol. 2009; 41:777-784.

Mulholland J, Mallidis C, Agbaje I, et al. Male diabetes mellitus and assisted reproduction treatment outcome. Reprod. Biomed. Online. 2011;22:215-219.

Jelodar G, Khaksar Z, Pourahmadi M. Endocrine profile and testicular histomorphometry in adult rat offspring of diabetic mothers. J. Physiol. Sci. 2009; 59:377-382.

La Vignera S, Condorelli R, Vicarie E, et al. Diabetes mellitus and sperm parameters. J. Androl. 2012;33:145-153.

Agarwal A, Makker K, Sharma R. Clinical relevance of oxidative stress in male factor infertility: an update. Am. J. of Reprod. Immunol. 59 (2008) 2-11.

Amaral S, Oliveira PJ, Ramalho-Santos J. Diabetes and the impairment of reproductive funtion: possible role of mitochondria and reactive osygen species. Curr. Diab. Rev. 2008; 4: 46-54.

Agbaje IM, Rogers DA, McVicar CM, et al. Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: implications for male reproductive function. Hum. Reprod. 2007;22:1871–1877.

Heidelbaugh JJ. Management of erectile dysfunction. Am. Fam. Physician. 2010; 81(3):305-312,313.

Habibi A, Kalbasi S, Saadatjoo SA, Gholamian Arefi M. Evaluation of erectile dysfunction and associated factors in type-II diabetic patients in Birjand, Iran in 2008-2009. JRHS. 2011;11(2):97-102.

Nassir A. Erectile dysfunction risk factors for patients entering dialysis programme. Andrologia. 2010;42(1):41-47.

Knoblovits P, Costnazo P, Rey Valzacchi G, Gueglio G, Layus A, Kozak A, Balzaretti M, Litwak L. Erectile dysfunction, obesity, insulin resistance, and their relationship with testosterone levels in eugonadal patients in an andrology clinic setting. Journal of Andrology, 2010;31(3)263270.

Chitaley K, Kupelian V, Subak L, Wessells H. Diabetes, obesity and erectile dysfunction: field overview and research priorities. J. Urol. 2009; 182(6 Suppl): S45-S50.

Derosa G, Tinelli C, D'Angelo A, Ferrara G, Bonaventura A, Bianchi L, Romano D, Fogari E, Maffioli P. Glyco-metabolic profile among type 2 diabetic patients with erectile dysfunction. Endocrine Journal 2012, 59 (7), 611-619.

Hidalgo Tamola J, Chitaley K. Review type 2 diabetes mellitus and erectile dysfunction. J. Sex. Med. 2009;6(4):916-926.

Shabsigh R, Arver S, Channer S, et al. The triad of erectile dysfunction, hypogonadism and the metabolic syndrome. Int. J. Clin. Pract. 2008; 62(5)791-798.

Knoblovits P, Costanzo P, Valzacchi G, et al. Erectile dysfunction, obesity, insulin resistance, and their relationship with testosterone levels in eugonadal patients in an andrology clinic setting. Journal of Andrology, 2010;31: 263-270.

Malavige LS, Levy JC. Erectile dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. J. Sex Med. 2009; 6(5):1232-1347.

Awad H, Salem A, Gadalla A, El Wafa NA, Mohamed OA. Erectile function in men with diabetes type 2: correlation with glycemic control. Int J Impot Res. 2010;22(1):36-39.

Hatzimouratidis K, Hatzichristou D. Erectile dysfunction and diabetes mellitus. Insulin. 2009; 4(2):114-122.

Lewis R, Fugl Meyer KS, Corona G, Hayes RD, Laumann EO, Moreira ED Jr, Rellini AH, Segraves T. Definitions, epidemiology, risk factors for sexual dysfunction. J. Sex Med 2010; 7:1598-1607.

Sharifi, F, Asghari M, Jaberi Y, Salehi O, Mirzamohammadi F. Independent predictors of erectile dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus: Is it true what they say about risk factors? ISRN Endocrinology 2012; Vol. 2012, Article ID 502353, 5 p.

Traish AM, Saad F, Guay A. The dark side of testosterone review deficiency: II. Type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. J. Androl. 2009;30:23-32.

De Young L, Yu D, Freeman D, Brock GB. Effect of PDE5 inhibition combined with free oxygen radical scavenger therapy on erectile function in a diabetic animal model. Int. J. Impot. Res. 2003;15:347-352.

Rey Valzacchi G, Costanzo P, Finger L. Addition of metformin to sildenafil treatment for erectile dysfunction in eugonadal nondiabetic men with insulin resistance. A prospective, randomized, double-blind pilot study. Journal of Andrology, (2012)33: 608-614.

Hatzichristou D, Gambla M, Rubio-Aurioles E, et al. Efficacy of tadalafil once daily in men with diabetes mellitus and erectile dysfunction. Diabetic Medicine, 2008;25: 138-146.

Vardi Y. Microvascular complications in diabetic erectile dysfunction. Do we need other alternatives? Diabetes Care. 2009; 32, suppl 2, S420-422.

Kapoor D, Goodwin E, Channer KS, Jones TH. Testosterone replacement therapy improves insulin resistance, glycaemic control, visceral adiposity and hypercholesterolaemia in hypogonadal men with type 2 diabetes. Eur. J. Endocrinol. 2006; 154:899-902.

Jones H, Arver S, Hermann N, et al. Testosterone replacement in hypogonadal men with type 2 diabetes and/or metabolic syndrome (the TIMES2 Study). Diabetes Care 2011;34:828-837.

Ohl DA, et al. Division of Andrology and Microsurgery, Department of Urology, University of Michigan; Department of Urology, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen; The Miami Projectto Cure Paralysis, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine; and Department of Urology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine - Anejaculation and retrograde ejaculation. Urol. Clin. N. Am. 2008, 35:211-220.

London Ralph D, Wylie K. Ejaculatory disorders and sexual function. British Journal of Urology International 2005, 95: 1181-1186.

Yagil Barazani, et al. Beth Israel Medical Center and the Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, New York, USA and Department of Urology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, USA. Management of ejaculatory disorders in infertile men. Asian Journal of Andrology 2012, 14: 525-529.

Clare T Taylor. Diabetes and assisted reproductive technology. British Journal of Diabetes & Vascular Disease 2002 2: 247.

Mohamad Arafa MD, et al. Eini Hospital, Cairo University, Department of Andrology, Cairo, Egypt; Students Hospital, Department of Urology, Cairo, Egypt. Medical treatment of retrograde ejaculation in diabetic patients: a hope for spontaneous pregnancy. J. Sex Med. 2008;5:194-198.

Fedder MD, et al. Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Scientific Unit, Horsens Hospital, and Fertility Clinic, Odense University Hospital, Institute of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Vejle Hospital, and Sexological Clinic, Faculty of Medicine, Aalborg University, Denmark. Retrograde ejaculation and sexual dysfunction in men with diabetes mellitus: a prospective, controlled study. Andrology, 2013, 1: 602-606.

Kapoor D, Malkin C, Channer K, Jones T. Androgens, insulin resistance and vascular disease in men. Clinical Endocrinology. 2005; 63(3) 239-250.

Saboor Aftab S, Kumar S, Barber T. The role of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the development of male obesity-associated secondary hypogonadism. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf). 2013 Mar;78(3):330-337.

Dandona P, Dhindsa S. Update: hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in type 2 diabetes and obesity. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2011 Sep; 96(9):2643-2651.

Osuna JA, Gómez-Pérez R, Arata-Bellabarba G, Villaroel V. Relationship between BMI, total testosterone, sex hormone-binding-globulin, leptin, insulin and insulin resistance in obese men. Arch. Androl. 2006 Sep-Oct; 52(5):355-61.

Betancourt Albrecht M, Cunningham GR. Hypogonadism and diabetes. International Journal of Impotence Research. 2003;15 (Suppl 4) S14-S20.

Kapoor D, et al. Clinical and biochemical assessment of hypogonadism in men with type 2 diabetes: correlations with bioavailable testosterone and visceral adiposity. Diabetes care. 2007;30:911-917.

Chandel A, et al. Testosterone concentration in young patients with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2008;31:2013-2017.

Wu XY, et al. Testosterone replacement therapy improves insulin sensitivity and decreases high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels in hypogonadotropic hypogonadal young male patients. Clin. Med. J. (Engl). 2009 Dec 5;122(23):2846-2850.

Jones TH, et al. TIMES2 Investigators. Testosterone replacement in hypogonadal men with type 2 diabetes and/or metabolic syndrome (the TIMES2 Study). Diabetes Care. 2011;34:828-837.

Heufelder AE, Saad F, Mathijs C, et al. Fifty two week treatment with diet and exercise plus transdermal testosterone reverses the metabolic syndrome and improves glycemic control in men with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and subnormal plasma testosterone. J. Androl. 30:726-733.2009.

Sjöberg L, Pitkäniemi J, Haapala L, Kaaja R, Toumilehto J. Fertility in people with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes. Diabetologia. 2013;56(1):78-81.

Schmidt F, Kapellen TM, Wiegand S. Diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents with genetic syndromes. Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes. 2012;120(10):579-85.

Hammoud A, Gibson M, Peterson C, Blake D, Douglas T. Obesity and male reproductive potential. Journal of Andrology, 2006; 27 (5):619-626.

Aksglaede L, Juul A. Testicular function and fertility in men with Klinefelter syndrome: a review. Eur. J. Endocrinol. 2013;168(4):R67-76.

Gravholt C, Jensen A, Høst C, Bojesen A. Body composition, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes in Klinefelter syndrome. Acta Paediatr. 2011;100(6):871-7.

Bojesen A, Høst C, Gravholt C. Klinefelter’s syndrome, type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome: the impact of body composition. Molecular Human Reproduction, 2010; 16(6): 396-401.

Jiang-Feng M, Hong-Li X, Xue-Yan W. Prevalence and risk factors of diabetes in patients with Klinefelter syndrome: a longitudinal observational study. Fertil Steril. 2012; 98(5):1331-5.

Gillespie K, Dix R, Williams A. Islet autoimmunity in children with Down’s Syndrome. Diabetes, 2006; 55:3185-3188,

Nazer J, Cifuentes L. Estudio epidemiológico global del síndrome de Down Rev. Chil. Pediatr. 2011; 82(2): 105-112.

Kota S, Meher L, Jammula S, Clinical profile of coexisting conditions in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients. Diabetes Metab. Syndr. 2012;6(2):70-76.

Stefanidis K, Belitsos P, Fotinos A. Causes of infertility in men with Down syndrome. Andrologia. 2011; 43(5):353-357.

Lu G, Edwars J, Withman-Elia G. Constitutional mosaic trisomy 21 and azooespermeia: a case report. Journal of Pekin University (Health Sciences) 2005; 37(1):94-95.

Cortés F, Alliende M, Barrios A, Curotto B, Santa María L, Barraza X, Troncoso L, Mellado C, Pardo R. Caracterización clínico-genético-molecular de 45 pacientes chilenos con síndrome de Prader Willi. Rev. Med. Chile 2005;133: 33-41.

Krochik A, Ozuna B, Torrado M, Chertkoff L, Mazza C. Characterization of alterations in carbohydrate metabolism in children with Prader-Willi syndrome. J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab. 2006;19(7):911-918.

Mc Allister C, Whittington J, Holland A. Development of the eating behaviour in Prader-Willi Syndrome: advances in our understanding. Int. J. Obes. (Losd) 2011;35(2):188-197.

Nagail T, Mori M, Prader Willi. Syndrome, diabetes mellitus and hypogonadism. Biomed & Pharmacother 1999; 53:452-454.

Klysik M. Ciliary syndromes and treatment. Pathol. Res. Pract. 2008;204(2):77-88.

Sherafat Kazemzadeh R, Ivey L, Kahn SR, Sapp JC, Hicks MD, Kim RC, Krause AJ, Shomaker LB, Biesecker LG, Han JC, Yanovski JA. Hyperphagia among patients with Bardet-Biedl syndrome. Pediatr. Obes. 2013 Jun 18, Epub ahead of print.

Citton V, Favaro A, Bettini V, Gabrielij MG, Greggio N, Marshall J, Naggert J, Manara R, Maffei P. Brain involvement in Alström syndrome. Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2013, 8:24.

Bettini V, Maffei P, Pagano C, Romano S, Milan G, Favaretto F, Marshall JD, Paisey R, Scolari F, Greggio NA, Tosetto I, Naggert JK, Sicolo N, Vettor R. The progression from obesity to type 2 diabetes in Alström syndrome. Pediatr. Diabetes. 2012 February ; 13(1): 59-67.

Jermendy G, Szabolcs I, Szilágyi G, Dömötör L, Kárpáti P. Diabetes mellitus associated with late onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia: coincidence or causality? Diabetes Med. 1991;8(5):489-91.

Reichman D, Withe P, New M. Fertility in patients with congenital adrenal hiperplasia. Fertility and sterility, 2014;101(2):301-309.

Hsieh M, Hollander A, Lamb D, et al. The genetic and phenotypic basis of infertility in men with pediatric urologic disorders. Urology. 2010;76(1): 25-31.

Perrotta I, Santoro M, Guido C, Avena P, Tripepi S, De Amicis F, Gervasi M, Aquila S. Expression of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and COX-2 in human male gametes from normal patients, and those with varicocele and diabetes: a potential molecular marker for diagnosing male infertility disorders. J. Anat. 2012 Sep; 221(3):209-20.

Chen M, Macias C, Gunn S, et al. Intrauterine growth restriction and hypospadias: is there a connection? Int. J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. 2014(1): 20.1-9.

Virtanen HE, Tapanainen AE, Kaleva MM, Suomi AM, Main KM, Skakkebaek NE, Toppari J. Mild gestational diabetes as a risk factor for congenital cryptorchidism. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2006 Dec; 91(12):4862-4865.

Porter M, Faizan M, Grady R. et al. Hypospadias in Washington State: maternal risk factors and prevalence trends. Pediatrics. 2005 Apr; 115(4):e495-9.

World Health Organization. WHO. Manual for the standardized investigation and diagnosis of the infertile couple. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press; 2000.

Jungwirth A, Giwercman A, Tournaye H. European Association of Urology Guidelines on Male Infertility: The 2012 Update.

Raheem AA, Ralph D, Minhas S. British Journal of Medical and Surgical Urology 2012 5: 254.

Poongothai J, Gopenath TS, Manonayaki S. Genetics of human male infertility, Singapore. Med. J. 2009; 50(4):336.

Hwang K, Lipshultz LI, Lamb DJ. Use of diagnostic testing to detect infertility. Curr. Urol. Rep. 2011 February ; 12(1): 68-76.

Irvine DS. Epidemiology and aetiology of male infertility. Human Reproduction Vol. 13, Supplement 1, 1998.

Jarow JP. Effect of varicocele on male fertility. Human reproduction update. Vol. 7, Nº 1, pp. 59-64, 2001.

Jarow JP, Sharlip ID, Belker AM, Lipshultz LI, Sigman M, Thomas AJ, et al. Best practice policies for male infertility. The Journal of Urology 2002;167(5):2138-44.

Jarow JP, Espeland MA, Lipshultz LI. Evaluation of the azoospermic patient. Journal of Urology 1989; 142(1):62-5.

Hamadaa A, Esteves SC, Agarwal A. Unexplained male infertility: potential causes and management. Human Andrology 2011, 1:2-16.

Aboua G, et al. Can lifestyle factors of diabetes mellitus patients affect their fertility?. Chapter 6. Licensee In Tech.

Valzacchi R, et al. Addition of metformin to sildenafil treatment for erectile dysfunction in eugonadal nondiabetic men with insulin resistance. A prospective, randomized, double-blind pilot study. J. Androl. 2012;33:608-614.

Kaukua J, Pekkarinen T, Sane T, Mustajoki P. Sex hormones and sexual function in obese men losing weight. Obes. Res. 2003; 11 (6) 689-694.

Niskanen L, Laaksonen DE, Punnonen K, Mustajoki P, Kaukua J, Rissanen A. Changes in sex hormone-binding globulin and testosterone during weight loss and weight maintenance in abdominally obese men with the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Obes. Metab. 2004; 6 (3) 208-215.

Hammoud A, Gibson M, Hunt SC, et al. Effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery on the sex steroids and quality of life in obese men. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2009; 94 (4) 1329-1332.

Bastounis EA, et al. Sex hormone changes in morbidly obese patients after vertical banded gastroplasty. Eur. Surg. Res. 1998; 30 (1) 43-47.

Globerman H, et al. Inhibin B in men with severe obesity and after weight reduction following gastroplasty. Endocr. Res. 2005; 31 (1) 17-26.

Scotto di Frega A, Dale B, Di Matteo L, et al. Secondary male factor infertility after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for morbid obesity: case report Hum. Reprod. (April 2005) 20 (4): 997-998.

Håkonsen LB, Thulstrup AM, Aggerholm AS, et al. Does weight loss improve semen quality and reproductive hormones? Results from a cohort of severely obese men. Reprod. Health 2011; 8:24.

Esposito K, Giugliano F, Di Palo C, et al. Effect of lifestyle changes on erectile dysfunction in obese men: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2004; 291 (24) 2978-2984.

Kaukua J, et al. Sex hormones and sexual function in obese men losing weight. Obes. Res. 2003;11:689-694.

Ozata M, et al. The effects of metformin and diet on plasma testosterone and leptin levels in obese men. Obesity research 2001; 9 (11) 662-667.

Casulari LA, et al. Effects of metformin and short-term lifestyle modification on the improvement of male hypogonadism associated with metabolic syndrome. Minerva endocrinologica 2010; 35 (3) 145-151.

Rabbani SI, Devi K, Khanam S. Inhibitory effect of glimepiride on nicotinamide-streptozotocin induced nuclear damages and sperm abnormality in diabetic Wistar rats. Indian J. Exp. Biol. 2009;47:804-810.

La Vignera S, et al. Diabetes mellitus and sperm parameters. J. Androl. 2012;33:145-153.

Schoeller EL, Albanna G, Frolova AI, Moley KH. Insulin rescues impaired spermatogenes is via the hypothalamic pituitary gonadalaxisin Akita diabetic mice and restores male fertility. Diabetes 2012; 61:1869-1878.

Hamada AJ, Montgomery B, Agarwal A. Male infertility: a critical review of pharmacologic management. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2012 Dec; 13(17):2511-31. Epub 2012 Nov. 3.

Goulis DG, Tarlatzis BC. Metabolic syndrome and reproduction: I. Testicular function. Gynecol. Endocrinol. 2008; 24: 33-9.

Bosman E, Esterhuizen AD, Rodrigues FA, Becker PJ, Hoffmann WA. Prevalence of hyperinsulinaemia among normozoospermic donors at Medfem Clinic, South Africa. Andrologia. 2013 Feb;45(1):18-25.

Kong C, Nimmo L, Elatrozy T, Anyaoku V, Hughes C, Robinson S, Richmond W, Elkeles R. Smoking is associated with increased hepatic lipase activity, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and early atherosclerosis in Type 2 diabetes. Atherosclerosis, 2001;156(2) 373-378.

Bobjer J, Naumovska M, Giwercman YL, Giwercman A. High prevalence of androgen deficiency and abnormal lipid profile in infertile men with non-obstructive azoospermia. Int. J. Androl. 2012; 35 (5):688-694.

- Mallidis C, Agbaje IM, Rogers DA, Glenn JV, Pringle R, Atkinson AB, Steger K, Stitt AW, McClure N. Advanced glycation end products accumulate in the reproductive tract of men with diabetes. Int. J. Androl. 2009;32(4):295-305.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.47196/diab.v48i3.188

Copyright (c) 2020 Sociedad Argentina de Diabetes Asociación Civil

ADVERTISEMENT
ADVERTISEMENT